Science Art & Cognition Workshop 2018, memorias.

En esta segunda edición del taller Science, Art & Cognition se logró una asistencia constante durante toda la semana. Artistas de diversas disciplinas, psicólogos, biólogos, físicos, neurocientíficos, matemáticos y computólogos entre muchos otros, nos reunimos para intercambiar ideas y encontrar rutas de trabajo interdisciplinar con un mismo fin: conocer.

La participación de los asistentes fue muy activa y la retroalimentación que obtuvo cada uno de los proyectos presentados fue enriquecedora. El evento se llevó a cabo en un ambiente de camaradería en el cual se gestaron amistades y proyectos a futuro.

Desde su inicio, este fue el espíritu del taller. Crear un espacio informal en el que todos tuvieran voz y pudieran compartir su conocimiento y sus dudas con los demás.

Los esperamos en próximas ediciones y agradecemos la motivación y el trabajo realizado por todos los asistentes.

 

 

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Conferencia “It’s about Time – in the Human Brain: behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings” por Manon Grube (Resumen)

En el marco del Taller Science Art & Cognition 2018, la PhD Manon Grube (Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus Univ. Denmark ) , dará la conferencia titulada “It’s about Time – in the Human Brain: behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings” el jueves 27 de septiembre.

—–Para conocer el programa del taller haz click aquí—–

—–Para hacer la aplicación al registro del taller haz click aquí—-

 

Abstract

It’s about Time – in the Human Brain: behavioural, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings

Rhythm and timing are critical to music and speech, and the perception of rhythm and time is a most fascinating field to study to me. My research tackles mechanisms of perceptual timing, phenomenally and neurally, and in terms of their relevance. In my talk I will present an overview on my work on rhythm perception, integrating studies in neurological patients, healthy adults and children. I will first introduce the apparent distinction between beat-based and duration-based timing  (patients, TMS, fMRI). From there, I move on to advocate a tight yoking between the two, by discussing their links to language skill during adolescent development, as well as observations from non-beat based predictive timing. As a finishing note I will come back to beat-based rhythm processing, and present unpublished and on-going work on the neural correlates in the EEG.

 

Image: https://pixabay.com/en/time-clock-watches-time-of-2798570/

Conferencia “Effects of mindfulness on brain electrical activity” (Resumen)

En el marco del Taller Science Art & Cognition 2018, la Dra. Araceli Sanz Martin, dará la conferencia titulada “Effects of mindfulness on brain electrical activity” el viernes 28 de septiembre.

—–Para conocer el programa del taller haz click aquí—–

—–Para hacer la aplicación al registro del taller haz click aquí—-

 

“Effects of mindfulness on brain electrical activity”

Dra. Araceli Sanz1, Mtro. Arturo Ron1, Mtro. Rubén D Castañeda2 y María Esparza2.

1 Laboratorio de Estrés y Neurodesarrollo del Instituto de Neurociencias de la UdeG;
2 Centro de Atención Terapéutica (CEDAT).

Mindfulness comprises a series of techniques oriented to the focus of attention in the experience of the present moment. Several studies have suggested that the regular practice of these techniques can represent an intervention tool in clinical conditions, since this can favor behavioral changes, as well as brain structure and activity. In this regard, works of electroencephalography and image not only have reported changes in activity and brain structure during the exercise of mindfulness, but also, long-term changes that persist beyond the exercise of this technique, mainly in areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the insula, the hippocampus, the corpus callosum and the amygdala, as well as in tracts that interconnect these structures. These changes have been associated with a greater ability to regulate attention and emotion, as well as an increase in prosocial behavior and executive functioning.

In particular, some studies that have evaluated EEG activity before and after mindfulness training, have reported changes in the activity of the alpha and theta bands (mainly), characterized by a generalized decrease in absolute power and increase in the correlation between frontal and central areas. These changes have been related to alertness, attention and sensory receptivity, which can favor more complex processes such as emotional regulation and various executive functions.

As well as “scientific mindfulness”, there are also other techniques based on meditation, which requires a detailed approach based on techniques that allow knowing, explaining and differentiating the mechanisms at the brain level that underlie the changes reported in behavioral and cognitive aspects.

In our laboratory, we have studied the effects of mindfulness training in the executive functioning and EEG activity of both high school adolescents with low academic performance and behavior problems as well as young people in conflict with the law. In the first study, sixteen males aged 12-14 years were evaluated and integrated two groups: mindfulness and control. We found an increase in both performances in tasks measuring executive functioning and in the right intrafrontal EEG correlation in the alpha1 and alpha2 bands. In the second study, sixty-five young males aged 15-23 years who had committed a violent crime were evaluated. Thirty nine males were assigned to the mindfulness group and twenty six to the control group. After the treatment, the mindfulness group presented a significant increase in performance in tasks related to the follow-up of rules and the risk-benefit processing, as well as an increase in the reaction time and decrease of the impulsive responses in a stop-signal task. In addition, this group showed an increase in the right intra-hemispheric correlation in the delta, theta and gamma bands, among frontal, central and parietal areas.

In conclusion, the practice of mindfulness improves executive functioning especially in those processes that have to do with inhibition and risk taking. This is associated with an increase in right functional connectivity both between the frontal regions and between the fronto-central and fronto-parietal areas.

Conferencia Arte y Atractores Cognitivos (Resumen)

En el marco del Taller Science Art & Cognition 2018, Manolo Cocho (Artista Visual, UNAM), dará la conferencia titulada “Arte y Atractores Cognitivos: Patrones y Puntos Críticos” el martes 25 de septiembre.

—–Para conocer el programa del taller haz click aquí—–

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ARTE Y ATRACTORES COGNITIVOS

Patrones y puntos críticos

Aquí se intenta entender la correlación entre la conducta compleja del comportamiento de la fenomenología en general, con el arte y con el proceso cognitivo que involucra su ejecución y consumo.

Uno de los aspectos de las investigaciones de las ciencias de la complejidad está orientado a la búsqueda de la comprensión del funcionamiento de patrones comunes que puedan ser generales a diferentes fenómenos y a diferentes disciplinas. Cuando observamos un fenómeno podemos ver que generalmente se repite o bien que podemos repetirlo en laboratorio Si obtenemos datos de las mediciones  de cada evento observamos que su conducta tiene ciertas variaciones, y si mediante el uso de la computadora procesamos grandes cantidades de datos resulta un rango dentro del cual se suceden todas las posibles variaciones de la conducta del fenómeno en cuestión. Los rangos totales de las posibilidades de la conducta de los fenómenos se llaman atractores y existen en el comportamiento de cualquier fenómeno, aunado a que los territorios fuera de esa cuenca donde no sucederá el fenómeno se llaman repulsores.  Esto es observable en la ciencia pero también en el arte.

Por otro lado otro tópico de la complejidad análogo a cualquier fenómeno es la cuestión de los puntos o periodos críticos en los cuales los fenómenos cambian de comportamiento notablemente adquiriendo nuevas propiedades, y esto también es perfectamente aplicable al comportamiento del arte.

Conferencia Understanding Musical Schemata Across Musical Cultures por Panayotis Mavromatis (Resumen)

En el marco del Taller Science Art & Cognition 2018, el PhD Panayotis Mavromatis (Universidad de Nueva York), dará la conferencia titulada “Understanding Musical Schemata Across Musical Cultures” el viernes 28 de septiembre.

—–Para conocer el programa del taller haz click aquí—–

—–Para hacer la aplicación al registro del taller haz click aquí—-

Abstract

Understanding Musical Schemata Across Musical Cultures

Musical schemata, or patterns of varied repetition, have recently been shown to play a central role in music composition and improvisation, and are received increasing attention in music theory, historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and music information retrieval. For example, Treitler (1974, 1975), Hucke (1980), and Nowacki (1985, 1986) have studied formulaic structure in medieval plainchant and have related it to questions of oral transmission. Gjerdingen (1988, 2007) has demonstrated the pedagogical and communicative significance of schematic patterns in the galant style of eighteenth-century Europe. Seeger (1966), Shapiro (1972, 1975), and Cowdery (1984, 1990) have studied melodic families in Western folk song, and more recently Volk and collaborators (2012, 2016) have explored similar questions in a computational framework. Richard Widdess (2011) has identified schematic patterns in orally transmitted devotional songs of Nepal. And the present author has developed a computational model of formulaic structure in modern Greek church chant (Mavromatis 2005, 2009). In this talk, I suggest that diverse manifestations of schema-based variability in music can be accommodated within a common formal and computational framework of musical schema theory that draws on general cognitive schema theory (Rumelhart 1980, Schank and Abelson 1977) and on various aspects of previous music studies. Thus, behind the diversity of musical practices and attitudes, one can glean patterns of structure and behavior that could in principle be traced to a common origin, namely properties of memory and learning. The latter, though diverse in their cultural manifestations, nevertheless rely on the common biological underpinning of the human brain with its very specific capabilities and limitations.